Machine tools that feature a CNC system contain several key parts and elements that enhance the efficiency of the machine. In this article, we will talk about the main parts of CNC machine parts and some of their characteristic elements.

CNC machine definition

CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. When computers are used to control numerically controlled machine tools than the machine is called a CNC machine. In other words, the use of computers to control machine tools such as lathes, milling machines, slotting machines, forming machines, etc. called a CNC machine. The cutting operations performed by CNC are known as CNC machining. The various machining services in which CNC machines are used are known as CNC machining services. In CNC machine shops, programs are designed or prepared in advance, then it is fed into the CNC machine. According to the program, the CNC machine controls the movement and speed of the tools.

Illustration: Revealing CNC machine parts and accessories

CNC machine spare parts

Shaft holder

These components on the CNC machine bear all the load of the machine, this means all other components are mounted on it. The shaft holder component is made of a hard material such as cast iron. Because in CNC lathes, the tool towers move through them.


The machine head is one of the main components of a CNC lathe since the workpiece is fixed to it. The CNC lathe has a motor that drives the spindle.


This CNC machine spare part provides extra grip to the workpiece when performing operations such as slotting, threading, turning. The holder is provided at the end surface of the workpiece.

Hedgehog feather center stand

Hedgehog center holders help to concentrate workpieces between machine head and center supports

Blanket or pedal switch

The pedal is used to open and close the chuck when attempting to clamp the component


The chuck is mounted on the spindle providing space for fixing the tool.


The control panel is also one of the important CNC machine spare parts, used to set or program the operation to be performed on the workpiece. It is also known as the brain of the CNC machine.

Tool Tower

In this CNC machine spare part, the tool is mounted on it and allows the operator to operate on it. Tool towers vary in shape and a number of tools can be used on them.

Now, we will discuss the CNC machine system.

Elements of CNC machine


This is the computer input made by the keyboard when asking the machine to execute code that controls the function. This control code consists of two sets; G-codes and M-codes. M-codes are miscellaneous machine commands that do not direct shaft movement. While G-codes are used to command specific machine movements, such as machine movements or drilling functions.

Tape reader

The tape reader serves as a storage device where the program can be stored for a particular machining operation. Program modification can be easily done by modifying the existing program according to its requirements.

Mini computer

This is the main control part of the CNC machine. It interprets the input data into a language understood by the computer to control the following functions:

  • Change the spindle speed accordingly and also control the spindle rotation direction.

  • To start and stop the machine spindle.

  • To start and stop the coolant supply.

  • Change the necessary tools as required.

  • Feed speed control.

  • To change the workpiece.

Servo system

The servo system receives and controls the signals that form the feedback devices and sets the output according to the parts of the machine.

CNC Machine

A CNC machine is a complete device where the actual finished part is made. It contains the locomotive, center stand, foot switch, tool tower and chuck.

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